It seems to be fairly complex, looking for a good introduction and overview with real examples if possible.
When it comes to raising money you must remember that risk is a perception. Your job is to drain the risk!
Below is a link to a resource I provide my investors. The 50 questions are specific to product design/development but the 15 categories are questions that apply to any industry.
If you can answer these questions about your deal you will have gone a long way to "drain the risk" for your investors and get funded.
Once you have answered the questions for your deal schedule a call with me and I can help you integrate the answers into your investor pitch.
The best way to learn is to go to industry events put on by both angel and VC forums. For example, in the SF Bay Area this company regularly sponsors events to understand the space https://sv.tie.org/initiative/tie-angels. You can also check out SARTA in the Sacramento region.
If you're looking to actually get involved in raising money that's a different question.
The best way to learn about startup fundraising is to get a mentor/advisor. They will be able to take you through a number of realistic scenarios, including if your startup is fundable, and at what stage your startup is. They should also be able to tell you where you should seek your investment, what type of investment and network your to the right investor.
Some information intake is great but the only way you can really learn the process is to go through it your self.